VKI STO Proceedings - FREE

Logo RTOBelow you will find a listing of all published AVT scientific proceedings sponsored by the STO to support a Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute.

An abstract of each and every publication can be accessed directly and, depending on their classification, the full text of many of these reports can be downloaded from the STO Website. CD-ROM copies may also be obtained from one of the National Distribution Centres or purchased from one of the RTA Sales Agencies.

Aerothermodynamic design, review on ground testing and CFD

Papers presented during the AVT-186 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, March 29 – April 1, 2010.
Not yet Published, RTO-EN-AVT-186
Lecture Series Directors: O. Chazot, K. Bensassi

Modeling and computation of nanoparticles in fluid flows

Papers presented during the AVT-169 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, February 9-12, 2009.
Published, RTO-EN-AVT-169,ISBN 978-92-837-0104-0, 354 pgs
Lecture Directors: O. Chazot & P. Rambaud
Abstract: These Lecture Series was dedicated to numerical description of nanoparticles in a fluid. Different possible frameworks were reviewed including Lagrangian, Eulerian, continuous or non-continuous approach. A complete description of the Method of Moments with Interpolative Closure together with the Dynamic Monte Carlo technique combine with atomistic model allowed describing the nanoparticle formation from its nucleation to its aggregation. Review of alternative approach such as the multi-fluid formulation derived from the Kinetic theory is done. A complete description of electrostatic effect including the transport, deposition and removal of charged nanoparticles plus the static and the dynamic electrorheology presentation are done. Many other advance processes including the sintering phenomenon treated with the stochastic particle method and applied to the soot formation are proposed. The transport properties of plasma flows are reviewed in order to better understand the nanoparticle synthesis from a plasma reactor. Among other this synthesis must use an efficient quench in order to condense the chemical species in a cloud of nanoparticle nucleus.


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Non-equilibrium gas, from physical models to hypersonic flights

Papers presented during the AVT-162 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 8-12 September 2008.
Published in September 2009, RTO-EN-AVT-162, ISBN 978-92-837-0091-3


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Advances in laminar-turbulent transition modeling

Papers presented during the AVT-151 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 09-12 June 2008.
Published in September 2009, RTO-EN-AVT-151, ISBN 978-92-837-0900-6
Abstract: The Lecture Series starts with a comprehensive review of the various paths to transition in wall boundary layers, from the traditional views to the more recent ones. Linear stability analysis is then described in detail. Experiments on boundary layer stability, both in 2-D and 3-D cases are commented, highlighting basic rules, techniques and good practice, including considerations about receptivity, flight experiments and experiments in quiet hypersonic tunnels. Parabolized stability equations are presented, including verification and validation. Direct Navier-Stokes simulations and transition for 2-D flows are then discussed. The recent approaches on transient growth, which can be a significant factor in by-pass transition, are also reviewed, including the cases of 3-D and of supersonic flows. On the practical side, transition prediction methods for subsonic, transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows are reviewed. Control of transition by heating, cooling, is discussed, as well as design for natural laminar flow, laminar flow control, or hybrid laminar flow control. Specific subjects like attachment line instability and surface imperfection problems are also considered, and the role of chemical reactions in the case of hypersonic flows.


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Advances on propulsion technology for high-speed aircraft

Papers presented during the AVT-150 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 12-15 March 2007.
Published in March 2007, RTO-EN-AVT-150, ISBN 978-92-837-0085-2
Abstract: This RTO lecture series reviews engine technologies suitable for supersonic and hypersonic propulsion: rocket propulsion units, turbine based combined cycles, ramjet/scramjet, and pulsed detonation. The growing interest in hypersonic vehicles and reusable launch vehicles has recently driven several research programs. In this regard, speakers from USA, Russia, Australia and the European Union presented their unique experience. The program was completed with specific sessions on noise generation from high-speed jets, chemical pollution and hydrogen technology for aircraft propulsion.


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Design, analysis of high speed pumps

Papers presented during the AVT-143 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 20-23 March 2006.
Published in November 2006, RTO-EN-AVT-143, ISBNs 92-837-0063-5 / 978-92-837-0063-0
Abstract: The search for more compact and lighter pumps has led to an increased rotational speed up to the point where cavitation and rotordynamics become a major issue. The purpose of present proceedings is to provide an overview of the state of the art about those phenomena and to discuss other aspects that are of importance for advanced high speed pumps.
The Lecture Series provides a detailed description of the physics of cavitation, its inception and development, and addresses the numerical modeling of cavitation as well. Techniques for unsteady pressure and velocity measurements are presented to provide a better insight into the real flow in pump impellers. Rotordynamic problems and their impact on seals and bearings are discussed in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages of different types of fluid film bearings and seals. Impeller volute interaction is presented as an important source of mechanical excitation for impeller and shaft in off-design operation. Finally, flow instabilities such as rotating stall, surge, rotating cavitation and cavitation surge are discussed.
The Educational Note ends with a description of the modern design techniques, presently under development in different research groups for the purpose to speed up the design process and to improve performance.


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Experiment, modeling and simulation of gas-surface interactions for reactive flows in hypersonic flights

Papers presented during the AVT-142 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 6-10 February 2006.
Published in July 2007, RTO-EN-AVT-142, ISBN 978-92-837-0057-9
Abstract: The lecture series addressed the chemical non-equilibrium phenomena in the context of hypersonic re-entry flow. The objectives were to review the up-to-date experimental techniques, the theoretical models, as well as the numerical simulation strategies involved in the treatment of the chemical characters of high temperatures gases. Focusing on re-entry situation the presentations dealt with high temperature gas chemistry and also on gas-surface interaction known as catalytic effects for space vehicles.
A systematic review has been presented from the detailed modeling of the microscopic level phenomena to the implementation of models for applied CDF on re-entry vehicles. As a first conclusion it appears that the bridge from the lower scale to the macroscopic surface recombination properties need further studies to be efficiently establish.


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Flight experiments for hypersonic vehicle development

Papers presented during the AVT-130 RTO AVT/VKI Lecture Series held at the von Karman Institute, Rhode St. Genèse, Belgium, 24-27 October 2005.
Published in June 2007, RTO-EN-AVT-130, ISBN 978-92-837-0079-1
Abstract: This RTO-AVT/VKI Lecture Series brought together specialists from Europe, USA, and Russia to discuss flight experiments that pertain to the development of hypersonic vehicles. The notes of this Lecturer Series provide an important resource for researchers interested in the development and interpretation of reliable flight experiments. Following a discussion of ground-test strategies that complement flight experiments and basic instrumentation issues, past and current flight experiment programs are presented with detailed discussion of the results, or expected results. Finally, advanced instrumentation concepts that are being developed to study critical aerothermodynamic phenomena on future hypersonic flight experiments are described.
The lecture notes were prepared under the combined sponsorship of the RTO AVT Panel, the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, and the European Office of Air Force Research and Development.


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Micro gas turbines

Sponsored by the AVT/VKI to support a Lecture Series held at the von Kármán Institute, Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium, 14-18 May 2004.
Published in December 2005, RTO-EN-AVT-131, ISBN 92-837-1151-3
Abstract: Portable equipment as well as propulsion of small airplanes (UAV) and robots have enhanced the need for portable power supplies of large energy density (kWh/kg). The need for high performance and the specific problems resulting from the miniaturization of components are the motivation for the present lecture series.
This course describes the state-of-the-art and gives an overview of the research activities on problems that are specific for micro and nano-gasturbines, such as large heat fluxes, oil free bearings, high performance and compact heat exchangers, special combustion chamber designs and the use of non-conventional fuels, unconventional materials and appropriate manufacturing techniques, and new electrical generators and motors.
It is shown what progress is still needed in all those fields before portable gas-turbine units between .1 and 1 kW will become available. Possible applications of micro-gasturbines for propulsion of UAV and integration in fuel-cells are also presented. It is concluded that a lot of research is still required before the target of 75% thermal efficiency will be reached for the latter ones.


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Critical technologies for hypersonic vehicle development

Sponsored by the AVT/VKI to support a Lecture Series held at the von Kármán Institute, Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium, 10-14 May 2004.
Published in December 2005, RTO-EN-AVT-116, ISBN 92-837-1138-6
Abstract: This RTO/VKI Lecture Series was focused on critical technologies in hypersonic vehicle development, including ground test, numerical simulation and flight test.
The introduction comprised a historical overview on hypersonic vehicle development as well as a thorough review of ongoing vehicle development and flight-testing programs. To provide sufficient background information, lectures were presented on compressible flows of perfect and imperfect gases, with special attention given to shock-wave boundary-layer interactions, laminar to turbulent transition, and high temperature gas properties. Advancements in computational modeling capabilities for hypersonic vehicle design were addressed, and the ongoing need for validation data, as well as a consistent validation methodology, where highlighted.
Specific critical technology areas, including trajectory aerothermal environment definition, system trade studies, propulsion systems, aerodynamic control laws, flight instrumentation, thermal protection systems and flight experiments were all addressed in separate lectures given by international experts.
In all of the presentations the needs of future hypersonic flight vehicle development programs were addressed.


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Heat transfer and inverse analysis

Sponsored by the AVT/VKI to support a Lecture Series held at the von Kármán Institute, Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium, 26-29 April 2004.
Published in August 2005, RTO-EN-AVT-117
Abstract: This RTO/VKI Special Course provided state-of-the-art information on the theory, applicability and potential of inverse methods in heat transfer analysis. Inverse analysis T is powerful when advanced designs require accurate predictions of the governing heat transfer mechanisms taking place because in many situations, the phenomena involved is so difficult to investigate with conventional measurement approaches that this the only way to accomplish the aim. The course consisted of a general introduction to Inverse Heat Transfer Problems, fundamentals of heat transfer numerical methods as well as useful complements on mathematics. Theoretical aspects and the basis and applications of the iterative regularization method were complemented by on-line exercises and illustrations of specific inverse methods, the boundary element technique, and experimental techniques used to solve inverse heat transfer problems, with particular emphasis on non-intrusive optical thermometric techniques. The great applicability of inverse methods to determine thermophysical properties of heterogeneous materials and convective heat transfer in highly severe flow configurations was covered.


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Urban dispersion modelling

Presented at / Sponsored by the RTO Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) Workshop at VKI, Belgium, 1-2 April 2004. 
Published in July 2005, RTO-MP-AVT-120
Abstract: This workshop was intended to draw the aerodynamics and CFD expertise from the AVT community to the problems in urban dispersion modelling (UDM). With 15 presentations and subsequent discussions the participants addressed the weaknesses in current UDM approaches as well as future research fields. It was especially recommended to deal with methods to reduce the complex urban environment datasets to allow for rapid UDM and to develop a protocol or procedure for the validation of models. Furthermore, it is strongly recommended to hold a follow-on workshop to enable in-depth discussion of the major results of this first UDM workshop.


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Low Reynolds number aerodynamics on aircraft including applications in emerging UAV technology

Sponsored by the AVT/VKI to support a Special Course held at the von Kármán Institute, Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium, 24-28 November 2003.
Published in July 2005, RTO-EN-AVT-104
Abstract: The course focussed on low Reynolds viscous flows with particular emphasis on miniaturized unmanned air vehicles. The lectures covered both experimental and other modelling techniques used to understand the transition mechanisms on thin and large leading edge radii airfoil. Details on current 3DPTV and PIV techniques for flow visualization were included. Very small unmanned vehicles may use some type of moving or flapping surfaces to generate appropriate lift, with unsteady flows and laminar separation bubbles, a challenge for both numerical modellers and experimentalists. Transition prediction methods for low Reynolds number regimes were included.


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MEMS aerospace applications

Sponsored by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) in support of a Lecture Series presented on 3-4 October 2002 in Montreal, Canada; on 24-25 February 2003 in Ankara, Turkey; on 27-28 February 2003 in VKI Brussels, Belgium; and on 3-4 March 2003 in Monterey, California, USA.
Published in February 2004, RTO-EN-AVT-105, ISBN 92-837-1113-0
Abstract: This Lecture Series provides an introduction into MEMS technology and then focuses on six potential applications, namely micro-flow control, IMU, fuze/safety & arming, micro power, gas turbines applications, inventory and health monitoring of munitions. Also an introduction into MOEMS (Micro-Optical-Electro-Mechnical-Systems) will be provided.


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Internal aerodynamics on solid rocket propulsion

Sponsored by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) and presented at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI), in support of a RTO/VKI Special Course presented on 27-31 May 2002 in Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium.
Published in January 2004, RTO-EN-023, ISBN 92-837-1103-3
Abstract: These RTO-AVT/VKI Special Course notes provide the state of the art in internal aerodynamics in solid rocket propulsion, in a way accessible to attendees coming from both academic and industrial areas. Two families of solid motors can be identified: tactical rockets and large boosters for launch vehicles. The military rockets are subjected to combustion instabilities while vortex shedding drives the instabilities in the large boosters. After an overview of the motor internal flow dynamics, combustion of solid propellants and metal particulates were presented. Numerical modeling of internal flow aerodynamic, two-phase flow and flow/structural interactions were addressed, before focusing on the motor flow and combustion instabilities.


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Intelligent systems for aeronautics

Sponsored by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) and presented at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) in Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, 13-17 May 2002.
Published in June 2003, RTO-EN-022, ISBN 92-837-1101-7
Abstract: Intelligent systems are suited as search and optimization, pattern recognition and matching, planning, uncertainty management control and adaptation. These lecture notes cover techniques and application with emphasis on aeronautical and space applications. Techniques reviewed: decision strategy tools based on game theory, neural network techniques for fault identification, genetic algorithms and multi-agent theory. Application reviewed: air combat tactics, control of unmanned air vehicles, air combat simulation, space exploration, missile design, airfoil design, analysis of rocket plume data for condition monitoring. These applications highlight the relevance and importance of Intelligent Systems for military issues.


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Active control of engine dynamics

Sponsored by the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) and presented at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) in Brussels, Belgium, 14-18 May 2001.
Published in November 2002, RTO-EN-020, ISBN 92-837-1081-9
Abstract: Active control can alleviate design constraints and improve the response to operational requirements in gas turbines. The Course presented the state-of-the-art including experimental, theoretical knowledge and practical information. Topics treated: stability characteristics; active control approaches; robustness and fundamental limits; combustion systems processes; combustor dynamics; compression system dynamics models; diagnostics and control of compression instabilities; sensor and actuator architectures; R&D needs of future prospects. The course has shown that for combustion systems, as well as in actuator and sensor technologies the active control approach is a viable option even at full scale with potential for aero engines and air breathing missiles.


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Supercavitating flows

A VKI Lecture Series presented from 12-16 February 2001, at the von Karman Institute in Brussels, Belgium.
Published in January 2002, RTO-EN-010, ISBN 92-837-1074-6
Abstract: The Lecture Series organized by NATO-RTO and VKI dealt with high speed hydrodynamics and the flow condition of supercavitation. This refers to the generation of large cavities around wetted bodies. Treated were theory, experiment and computation of:

  • Supercavitating Motion,
  • Variational Methods in Cavitational Flow,
  • Independence of the Cavity Sections,
  • Logvinovich's principle,
  • Nonlinear Supercavitating Flows,
  • Artificial Supercavitation,
  • Dynamic Processes of Supercavitation,
  • Oscillations of Ventilated Cavities,
  • Cavity Dynamics,
  • Multiphase CFD Modelling,
  • Control of Supercavitation Flow,
  • Stability of Supercavitating Motion,
  • Supercavities in Compressible Fluid,
  • Supercavitating Object Propulsion,
  • Small Perturbation Theory,
  • Supercavitating 2-D and 3-D Hydrofoils,
  • Supercavitating Propellers.


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Development and operation of uavs for military and civil applications

A Special Course held at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) in Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, 13-17 September 1999.
Published in April 2000, RTO-EN-9, ISBN 92-837-1033-9

Abstract: Lecture Notes for the RTO Applied Vehicle Panel (AVT) Special Course on Development and Operation of UAVs for Military and Civil Applications" have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Overview of current UAV systems and potential for the future, Design and airworthiness requirements, Propulsion systems, Airbreathing propulsion for UVAVs, Microflyers, Experimental research at low Reynolds numbers, Payloads and sensors, Datalinks, Airspace policy, Air traffic management and Tools for software and system architecture validation. The material assembled in this report was prepared under the combined sponsorship of the RTOApplied Vehicle Technology Panel, the Consultant and Exchange Programme of RTO, the vonKármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI), and the NATO Partnership for Peace Programme.


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Measurement techniques for high enthalpy and plasma flows

A Special Course held at at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) in Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, 25-29 October 1999.
Published in April 2000, RTO-EN-8, ISBN 92-837-1030-4
Abstract: The RTO AVT/VKI Special Course on Measurement Techniques for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows" gathered specialists in this area from Europe, USA and Russia who combined their efforts to produce this
comprehensive set of notes. The following topics were covered:

  • review of various high enthalpy and plasma flow facilities,
  • intrusive and non intrusive measurement techniques for the characterization of the flows generated in these facilities,
  • utilization of the plasma facilities for the evaluation of material catalytic properties. The material assembled in this report was prepared under the combined sponsorship of the RTO AVT panel, the Consultant and Exchange Program of RTO and the von Kármán Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics.


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Fluid dynamics research on supersonic aircraft

A Special Course held at the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) in Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, 25-29 May 1998.
Published in November 1998, RTO-EN-4, ISBN 92-837-1007-X
Abstract: Contains the lecture notes prepared for a Special Course on Fluid Dynamics Research on Supersonic Aircraft organised by the RTO Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT). The Course was held at the von Kármán Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) Institute, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium 25-29 May 1998. The following topics were covered: History & Economics of Supersonic Transports, Supersonic Aerodynamics, Sonic Boom Theory and Minimization, Multi-Point Design Challenges, Vortex Plume Interactions, Propulsion System Design. Presentations on the major world wide supersonic transport programs were also included. The material assembled in this publication was prepared under the combined sponsorship of the RTO Applied Vehicle Technology Panel, the Consultant and Exchange Program of RTO, and the von Kármán Institute (VKI) for Fluid Dynamics.


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